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“Good Girls,” “Mama Bears,” and “Queen Bees”

Diane Feldman, a political researcher, has posted a fascinating analysis of the challenges female presidential candidates face in “branding” themselves, the core of which focuses on implicit bias and Jungian archetypes.

In terms of implicit bias, Feldman argues that although people implicitly associate men with leadership positions more than women, that this may not matter in some circumstances and can even work to the advantage of a female candidate. For example, in a “change election,” when voters crave a big transformational shift, being perceived implicitly as a non-traditional leader may be helpful.

Feldman also discusses the role of archetypes such as The Ruler (“Queen”) and The Caregiver. Her position on The Caregiver is quite nuanced. She argues that voters – especially women voters – expect a female candidate to show Caregiver qualities and balance strength with compassion. However, in order to connect with a candidate who fights for victims, you have to see yourself as a victim to believe she is fighting for you. And most people don’t like to see themselves as victims.  

I wonder what this means for Elizabeth Warren’s candidacy? From what I have seen, anyway, there isn’t much of The Caregiver in Warren’s tone. Instead, she seems to clearly position herself as The Warrior. In her announcement speech she used the word “fight” something like 30 times. Her language on the stump is full of violent metaphors (which is not to say she is literally advocating violence, of course.)

Can that sort of rhetoric work coming from a female candidate? Or is it perhaps more acceptable coming from a female candidate because it seems less threatening that it would from a man?  Can Warren, as an older white woman, get away with those kinds of metaphors more easily than, say, Cory Booker, who is a younger African American man?

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It’s a blog post about a Tide ad

Excellent video from Mark Ritson of Marketing Week, who breaks down the evolution of the memorable series of “It’s a Tide Ad” spots that ran during the 2018 Super Bowl.

Tide was facing a challenge here. How to stand out when you are a long-standing dominant brand in a boring category where you can’t really see the product benefit.

The insights were twofold: 

  1. Other brands in the detergent category were obsessed in their communication with elimination of dirt, which is at the lower level of the benefit ladder. So, there was an opportunity to go higher on the ladder and focus on clean.

  2. People in advertising are all preternaturally clean. So, in a way, every ad is a Tide ad.

But topping it off, of course, is that the execution of these insights was funny, unexpected, and brilliant.

The is the first in a series of videos in which Ritson discusses, in detail, the thinking behind some of campaigns that have been recognized with Effie Awards over the last 50 years.

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Delicious!

Some metaphors are hard to understand. This New York Times article analyzes the (possibly) recent trend in some cultures, including American culture, of comparing babies to food.

 Think about phrases like “She is so cute I want to eat her up!” or “He is delicious!” Pregnancy apps and various parenting books compare the size of the fetus at various points of gestation to different forms of food.

One theory is that food is familiar so it eases the anxiety of being pregnant. Another is that food is connected to love and therefore using food metaphors to understand a baby is easy and natural.

A weird hypothesis, but my favorite for some reason, is that these terms are an example of “cute aggression,” where people are overwhelmed with positive feelings upon seeing a baby – and expressing the desire to eat, crush, or bite said child somehow brings them back to a state of balance. (I don’t recall experiencing this with a baby, but I think I have experienced it with various dogs.)

The NYT writer points out that this is a cultural thing. In many places, if you say you want to eat someone’s baby you would be perceived as weird or even hostile. So I wonder why this metaphor, at this time in history, and in some cultures, has become so prominent?

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NPS has its Detractors

Marketers (and, increasingly, people in the C-suites) love Net Promoter Score (NPS). However, a recent article in the Wall Street Journal, headlined “The Dubious Management Fad Sweeping Corporate America,” attempts to debunk the practice.

If you are unfamiliar, NPS is based on a single question asked of consumers: “On a scale of 0-10, how likely are you to recommend this company’s product or service to a friend.”  If you answer 9 or 10, you are a promoter.  If you answer 0-6, you are a detractor. NPS is calculated by subtracting the percentage of customers who are detractors from the percentage who are promoters.

A consultant from Bain wrote in the Harvard Business Review that NPS is a predictor of growth and the “best predictor of consumer behavior.”  Companies have recently begun tying NPS to employee bonuses and revenue projections. NPS is frequently cited on earnings call by Fortune 500 companies.

However, academic research suggests much of this is nonsense. Studies suggest there is no correlation with revenue and that NPS doesn’t predict consumer behavior better than any other survey would. Moreover, the data also tend to be very noisy and require much larger sample sizes than typical surveys.

Even the guy who invented NPS calls many of the applications of the tool, “completely bogus.” The former CEO of Symantic and Intuit says too many companies mistake the score for real insight. It is a number, not an explanation.  (There is usually a “why?” question as part of NPS but companies too often ignore that information, and even that can only provide very limited insight.)

Intuitively, there is something about  NPS that makes sense. You want customers think positively about their experience with you – that goes without saying. So maybe it isn’t that NPS is garbage, but rather that it is one tool that should be viewed in context rather than sold as a be-all-end-all answer.

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Shoes make the person

If you are Kiwi Shoe Polish, developing great communication would seem like a challenge. Shoe polish appears to be pretty close to a commodity category, a decidedly unglamorous category, and Kiwi -- at least in the US -- is an old, iconic brand recognized by nearly everyone.

So where do you take that creatively?

Last year Kiwi introduced a print and social campaign featuring the shoes of famous people, with copy that brings those famous characters to life and illustrating their “first steps” to greatness. The ads include the shoes of Muhammad Ali, Amelia Earhart, Abraham Lincoln, Florence Nightingale, Vince Lombardi, and Ernest Hemingway.

I may be overthinking this, but when I saw this I asked myself, what is the connection to Kiwi, specifically?  What is the big insight? I am hypothesizing that the ads are playing off the old maxim, “Shoes make the man” (Or woman). Kiwi makes your shoes look great, which reflects on you. Therefore you shoes are kind of an extension of the wearer.

(Kiwi is no stranger to attention-grabbing advertising. Its “Portraits Completed” campaign was a winner at Cannes in 2017.)

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In search of the perfect nudge

For the last decade or so, since the publication of the seminal work on behavioral science, Nudge, so-called “nudges” have become a popular tool in marketing and social policy circles.

For example:

  • Defaults are important. If you have to opt out of a 401K plan, you are much more likely to use the plan than if you have to opt in.

  • Reminders can be important because people simply forget things. In Peru, Bolivia, and the Philippines, monthly reminders to set aside money increased saving and helped account holders meet their financial goals.

  • Small incentives can help. In India, offering parents a small bag of lentils incentivized mothers to bring in their children to complete a full course of vaccinations.

Sometimes, however, local factors can affect the influence of these nudges. For example, it has been established that social norms are a very effective way of influencing people to pay their taxes. (This means messages like, “Join the 98% of people like you who pay their taxes on time.”)  However, in Poland, messages that used punitive language were far more effective.

In Ekiti state in Nigeria, social recognition increased the accuracy of health-care record keeping by 13 percent. But it neighboring Niger, such incentives made no difference at all.

In short, gold-standard behavioral science tools become gold-standard for a reason – they generally work. But cultural differences can play a disruptive role, which suggests experimenting with a number of approaches before deciding on a definitive way forward.

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The making of Mayor Pete

Pete Buttigieg’s candidacy for the Democratic nomination is fascinating from a branding and communication perspective.

First, he is letting his supporters control his brand identity. The design firm Hyperakt has created an online design toolkit that aids supporters in creating their own yard signs and other materials in their own way. So the design agency is serving as facilitator, not gatekeeper, and is empowering supporters.

The campaign also is incorporating subtle messaging in its visual identity.  There is an image of a bridge that is a central part of his branding (representing bridging the divide that exists in the country) and the various color schemes are intended to bring to mind team sports, which his campaign believes will appeal to voters in the Midwest and also build a sports-like loyalty among his supporters.

Third, he seems to be modeling the George Lakoff linguistic approach to progressive messaging. In his speech announcing his candidacy, he made a clear attempt to redefine, in progressive terms, the meaning of the word freedom

He also is avoiding “fight/warrior” metaphors, which are prominent among other Democratic candidates, but which are at odds with Lakoff’s “Nurturant Parent” vision of successful progressive messaging.

Finally, how would a Republican opponent go after him? Often, Republicans have made subtle attacks (or, in President Trump’s case, not-so-subtle attacks) on male opponents’ masculinity. Buttigieg is gay and a veteran so it is unclear whether those kinds of attacks would stick. They can’t frame him as a coastal elite, given that he is a small-town mayor in Indiana.  It would be hard to paint him as a fringe radical, given his demeanor, appearance, and small-town bonafides.

Maybe they would try to frame him as weak or naïve, which could stick given the narrowness of his experience. Is it predictive that this cover story of New York magazine refers to him as a “boy” and features an image that closely resembles Steve Carrell’s depiction in promotional signs for The 40-Year-Old Virgin?

Overall, he is a fascinating candidate with a highly non-traditional background and unorthodox communication strategy. It will be interesting to see how it plays out for him.

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Indelible brand memories

The Museum of Brands in London is using branded products and packaging to enhance the lives of people with dementia.

 The director of the museum says that she often hears people walking around and getting excited about the childhood memories sparked by specific package designs or ads. This gave them the idea for a project called Brand Memories, which will run for two years and consists of a series of activities and events designed to help patients suffering from dementia.

 The sessions are held both at the museum and also at care facilities.

As Erin Tuckey, the community development assistant at the museum, explains, “Even when the memory of the session fades, the positive impact on the person’s mood may stay, and can also give families and carers an opportunity to interact with the person with dementia in a positive way,”

The museum says multi-sensory items and common everyday items like soap and candy tend to trigger the most powerful memories.

(In the US, there are a number of similar programs that encourage dementia patients to get together to talk about baseball, poetry, or music.)

 This reinforces the importance of brand memories. When people connect a brand back to childhood that often suggests some very powerful, often unconscious associations that still influence purchase behavior and perceptions.

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Construal level theory

Last week I was speaking to a client who mentioned “construal level theory,” which I had never heard of before. What it comes down to is this: The more distant an object is, the more abstractly you will think about it.  And “distance” can mean temporal distance, spatial distance, or social distance.

This is why we sometimes overcommit to things – when we are planning for events three months from now, we don’t think as much about the details as we do when those events are occurring three days from now.  Also, we tend to have more empathy for people who we perceive as similar to us in some way.

In marketing, if you are able to see in touch a product you become a little bit more likely to buy it because it’s distance from you has been reduced. Or an innovation can seem useless in the abstract until you actually see how it works and how it can affect your daily life.

Construal level theory also explains the fantastic reviews of Peter Jackson’s recent film, They Shall Not Grow Old. It’s a documentary about World War I. Typically film from that war is black-and-white, grainy, and jerky due to the technological limitations of cameras at that time.  Those films also don’t include sound. As a result, the war seems pretty distant. 

Jackson cleaned up those films, colorized them, and added ambient sound – thanks in part to the help of forensic lip-readers. The difference is incredible. No longer are the soldiers just shadowy figures on a screen. They are people who look like us and we can begin to feel empathy for the horrors they experienced.

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The timelessness of a good story

Many marketers preach about the power of stories – and they are not wrong. An article in Harper’s goes into depth about stories, their history, and how they work.

The author explains the universal power of stories by discussing “Little Red Riding Hood.”  Cultures all around the world have some version of “Little Red Riding Hood.” Clearly, it leverages universal themes even though the details of the story are a little different everywhere because of cultural nuances. 

 Other folktales like “Beauty and the Beast” and “Rumpelstiltskin” go back thousands of years for the same reason. As one expert quoted in the article says, the stories can go back further than the language used to tell them. The problems and challenges we face are, in some ways, very different from those of our ancestors. But in other ways, they aren’t that different.

Stories also require tension – “a bad guy.”  Villains in stories, even long-ago, were metaphors for real world threats that people faced. Therefore, they enabled a form of simulation that improved people’s mental and social skills and ability to overcome conflict. In short, stories had tension because they were teaching people how to survive.

The author argues, “A story is really a way of thinking—perhaps the most powerful and versatile skill in the human cognitive repertoire. The increasingly large brains of our ancestors, all the more attuned to the world’s complexity, needed a way to organize this overwhelming torrent of information, to pass the multiplicity of experience through a reverse prism and distill it into a single coherent sequence. Stories were the solution.”

Photo Credit: Unsplash/Eaters Collective

Photo Credit: Unsplash/Eaters Collective

What’s in a succulent, mouth-watering name?

There are numerous reasons we should eat less meat. It’s better for the planet. It’s better for our bodies. And non-meat options also can taste really good.

The problem is meat also tastes good and, furthermore, the way we describe meat and meat-based dishes sounds really good.  A Bison Prairie Burger or a Double Angus Beef Burger sounds lot more mouth-watering than a Vegetarian Burger or a Meat-Free Burger, names which tend to focus on what the product lacks and therefore primes people to think about what they are missing out on.

As detailed in this NPR story, recently featured on the wonderful OZ Twitter feed, the World Resource Institute’s Better Buying Lab recently teamed up with food companies in the UK and US to learn how names affect preference for meatless options.  Names that highlight the provenance of a particular food, its flavor, or its mouth feel make a big difference.

For example, when Panera changed the name of its “Vegetarian Black Bean Soup” to “Cuban Black Bean Soup,” sales rose 18 percent. When Sainsbury’s in the UK rebranded its “Meat-Free Sausage and Mash” as “Cumberland-spiced Veggie Sausage and Mash,” sales skyrocketed 76 percent.

Consumers unconsciously form consumption visions (mental simulations of what the product experience will be like) before they select a meal from a menu or a shelf -- and the way that meal is described seems to have a massive effect on that consumption vision.

As stated in the article, this sounds like Marketing 101.  But apparently it is not, because those who make and market vegetarian and vegan options have long given short shrift to the value of a tasty-sounding name.

This is a great example of a marketing nudge at work. No need to hector people or guilt-trip them into eating better. Just make the healthy food sound tastier.

 

Photo credit: Business Wire

Photo credit: Business Wire

Old brand, new tricks

Increasingly, brands are trying to reach consumers in ways that go beyond traditional advertising. Tide laundry detergent is pretty good at this.

P&G has announced it is taking its mobile laundry service app nationwide after a successful run in selected test markets. You drop off your laundry in a Tide drop-box at your local supermarket or in the lobby of your apartment complex and then use the app to submit cleaning instructions. A local cleaner will pick up your stuff and the app will notify you when it is ready for pickup – washed, sorted, and folded for you.

Tide also is also known for its “Loads of Hope” program, which brings mobile laundromats to areas that have been devastated by natural disasters. It was an early adopter of the Amazon Dash button. And, in terms of more traditional marketing, its 2018 Super Bowl ads were a big hit.

Tide is an old-school brand in a prosaic category, but it has still figured out ways to keep its brand fresh and relevant for modern consumers.

 

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Caring = healing

Does it matter if you like your doctor? Research from Stanford suggests that it does.

In one study, patients received a pinprick test, like the ones you get when you are tested for allergies. One group of patients was then examined by a doctor who was silent and stern.  Another group was examined by a doctor who reassured them, “From this point forward, your allergic reaction will start to diminish, and your rash and irritation will go away.”

Just this one statement of reassurance led patients to report that their rash was less itchy. The physician didn’t provide any kind of treatment; the words alone did the job.

In a similar study, patients were again given a histamine pinprick.  One group got a warm, friendly doctor who was confident and worked in a clean office.  Another group got a slob in a messy office who made hardly any eye contact and seemed unsure of himself/herself.

All patients were given a placebo skin lotion. Patients with the warm, confident doctor reported that the lotion decreased their itching. The patients with the less engaging doctor reported no change.

As the authors conclude in their New York Times column, “To really help people flourish, health care works better when it includes caring.”

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Going green? Specifics, please.

Many advertisers talk about their commitment to sustainability and the environment and, in turn, many consumers have grown skeptical of those claims. If you are a marketer, how can you make your green advertising more believable?

A new study in the Journal of Advertising Research suggests that the more specific the green claims, the more believable they are – and this holds true across a range of product categories.

In other words, the research found that a claim such as, “This battery is free from toxic heavy metals and is 98 percent recyclable” was more credible than something like, “This battery is kind to the environment and to the planet.”

 As the authors point out, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been urging consumers to think this way for 25 years. (For example, when a brand says a product is recycled, that could mean the product, the packaging or both. It could mean that only a small percentage was recycled. It is also important to understand where it was collected from.)

One limitation of the research is that study participants were simply exposed to green claims in isolation, not in the form of real consumer-facing ads. The study doesn’t take into account other aspects of creative execution, so making an emotional connection with those claims, supporting them with appropriate imagery, and embedding them within a suitable narrative is still important.  However, all else being equal, the research says specific is better when it comes to green messaging.

If you don’t have access to JAR you can read about the study here.

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Perfect imperfections

Jerry Olson is fond of saying that the value of a handmade rug comes as much from its beauty as from its flaws. Small imperfections suggest something made by hand and, ironically, with care. And that is worth a premium.

Research recently published in the Journal of Consumer Research suggests he is right. Imperfections can be a positive attribute for consumers, especially when they are interested in finding something unique.

We see this with collectibles sometimes. Baseball cards and stamps that contain printing errors often are worth much more than the corrected versions of those items. In the study, Taly Reich and her collaborators found that consumers have an extra longing for a batch of chocolate left in the over five minutes too long, which created a new flavor of chocolate, compared to chocolate that was cooked properly.

Photographs that were blurry or partially obstructed by a finger received a premium on eBay versus those with no such negative qualities. (That is one I found extremely counterintuitive.)

Also, artwork that contained a blemish was valued higher when they blemish was described as unintentional versus when it was described as intentional.

The researchers hypothesize that “intentionality bias” makes these flawed works seem unique. “That is, people assume that others to what they intend to do, and thus deviations from intention (or mistakes) are deemed more improbably.”

I am really struggling to think of brands that proudly advertise their mistakes and take advantage of this kind of a creation story.  Maybe part of Bob Ross’ brand was/is built on this. (“There are no mistakes, just happy accidents.”)  Perhaps UGG and Crocs do this, to an extent, by making their ugly appearance a part of their appeal, but that isn’t quite the same. 

Can you think of any examples? I am sure there are some.

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The perfect speech

I get chills every time I hear the “I Have a Dream Speech.”  It’s more than just the message, which is extremely powerful in its own right. It is something about how Martin Luther King, Jr delivers the message.

This Fast Company article describes some of the unconscious factors that made that speech so moving:

  • King’s references to the historical importance of the location in which he was speaking, which put the event into a larger context.

  • His direct references to The Gettysburg Address, the Constitution, and the Emancipation Proclamation appealed to the head.  While his references to the Bible, “My Country Tis of Thee,” and an old African American spiritual appealed to the heart.

  • His language was vivid and metaphorical. The article describes one long metaphor about cashing a check that was central to his thesis.

  • He sharpened his ideas through contrast. For example, “The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.”

  • His use of repetition. The words “I have a dream…that one day” are the obvious example but he repeats language many times throughout the speech and they drive his messages home.

  • A clear call to action.

  • He ends on a hopeful note – which is the repetition of his various “dreams.”

If you want another fascinating rhetorical analysis of the speech, check out this video from Nancy Duarte, a presentation expert who had written a couple of great books about PowerPoint presentations. Ironically, she says, “It would have ruined it if he would have had slides” because his metaphors were so vivid that an actual image would not have done them justice.

(On a historical note, one of the things that is amazing about this speech, to me, is that the last several minutes of it were unscripted. Imagine being able to speak like that off the top of your head!)

Our presentations will never rise to the level of historical significance of the “I Have a Dream” speech but there are rhetorical devices we can borrow that can make our more workaday presentations more compelling.

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“Mathematics is the Art of Giving the Same Name to Different Things”

Chicago’s Booth School of Business is discussing some new research about the ways in which we misinterpret data. — the results of which explain why the Henri Poincare quote above has some truth to it.

In sum, we tend to overestimate the likelihood of something happening when the likelihood is framed as a statistical probability, and underestimate the odds of it happening when the likelihood is framed as a percentage-point difference.

The authors of the paper ran this experiment in contexts that included political polling and sports betting.  If you tell people that the Warriors have an 84% chance to beat the Wizards, they are much more likely to think the Warriors will win than if you tell them the Warriors are 10-point favorites. (Even though being a 10-point favorite and having an 84% chance to win are the same)

Similarly, before the 2016 election….people who saw that Hillary Clinton had a 74% chance to defeat Trump were more confident about her chances than people who saw that she was estimated to receive 53% of the vote – even though the 74% number was extrapolated from the poll that put her at 53% of the vote.

(Nate Silver has harped on this constantly at his fivethirtyeight website and he is absolutely right. Although he also echoes the arrogance of many statistical modelers, who seem to insist that as long as you say something has even a 1% chance of happening, you can always crow that you were “correct,” no matter what the actual outcome is.)

 The findings intuitively make sense – in these examples the statistical probability is the larger number so we probably shouldn’t be shocked that the larger number seems more powerful. But if nothing else it is a warning about how one conveys information, especially numerical data.

 

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The Best of 2018

Welcome to 2019.  AdAge took a look back at the year gone by and compiled its list of the Top 10 ads of 2018.

At the top of the list is Nike for its Dream Crazy campaign, featuring Colin Kaepernick. Nike did what the NFL could not do -- or didn’t care to do -- which was to frame Kaepernick’s kneeling as a courageous assertion of principle rather than an anti-police or anti-American tantrum.

 Also on the list, an ad from 7-Eleven Norway billing the country as “The Land of Chlamydia” and urging tourists to purchase condoms at 7-Eleven. And a Tourism Australia spot, which used a Crocodile Dundee theme to promote the wonders of that nation.

Others featured include Libresse’s singing vulvas, Amazon’s Alexa, Apple’s “Welcome Home” video, and a hilarious takeoff on Super Bowl advertising from Tide.

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Think Different

This week is the 50th anniversary of Apollo 8, which was the first NASA mission to orbit the moon.  It also produced the photograph above, called “Earthrise,” which revolutionized the way many people think about our planet. Thus, it seems like an appropriate time to discuss the interaction between climate change and behavioral science.

Climate change is difficult to counteract on both a political and personal level.

We have seen, for a variety of reasons, that most governments lack the political will to take the drastic action required to stave off the worst effects of our warming planet.  But even at a personal level, many of us don’t act in ways that are congruent with our beliefs.  I am worried about out changing our climate, but I still drive a lot, waste too much food, and generally squander more resources than I should.  I worry about the planet, but I don’t do much about it.

This article from BehavioralScientist.org discusses ways to spur people like me into action. Negative messaging generally doesn’t work – it just makes people feel hopeless or defensive. However, positive messages that tap into the emotion of pride can make a difference.

 When we see our country as old and mature, when we are prompted to think about our personal legacy, and when we hear less politicized language (e.g. “carbon offset” vs. “carbon tax”) – these things all can promote climate-friendly choices.

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Banned in Britain

An ad that is banned from TV has been rated one of the best this holiday season.

Kantar Millward Brown has assessed 22 UK holiday campaigns using social media listen, qual research, and facial coding to determine which was the most effective.  This ad for the supermarket Iceland Foods was banned from TV in the UK. It was created with the cooperation of Greenpeace, which made it a political ad forbidden by the country’s 2003 Communications Act.  However, it has been viewed 65 million times on social media and scored at the top of KMB’s rating metrics, on factors such as “involvement,” “brand love,” “enjoyment,” “persuasion,” and “different from others.”

Other top-scoring ads included those from Amazon, Marks & Spencer, and Aldi’s holiday ad featuring their beloved spokesveggie, “Kevin the Carrot.”

This year’s John Lewis ad, which UK consumers eagerly await each holiday season, fell a bit flat, according to the research.